1. What Does a Policy Look Like¶
A policy describes how services (either individually or as a whole) ought to behave. More specifically, a policy describes which states of the cloud are permitted and which are not. Or a policy describes which actions to take in each state of the cloud, in order to transition the cloud to one of those permitted states. For example For example, a policy might simply state that the minimum password length on all systems is eight characters, or a policy might state that if the minimum password length on some system is less than 8 that the minimum length should be reset to 8.
In both cases, the policy relies on knowing the state of the cloud. The state of the cloud is the amalgamation of the states of all the services running in the cloud. In Congress, the state of each service is represented as a collection of tables (see Cloud Services). The policy language determines whether any violation exists given the content of the state tables.
For example, one desirable policy is that each Neutron port has at most one IP address. That means that the following table mapping port id to ip address with the schema “port(id, ip)” is permitted by the policy.
Whereas, the following table is a violation.
This is the policy written in Congress’s policy language:
- error(port_id, ip1, ip2) :-
- port(port_id, ip1), port(port_id, ip2), not equal(ip1, ip2);
Note that the policy above does not mention specific table content; instead it describes the general condition of tables. The policy says that for every row in the port table, no two rows should have the same ID and different IPs.
This example verifies a single table within Neutron, but a policy can use many tables as well. Those tables might all come from the same cloud service (e.g. all the tables might be Neutron tables), or the tables may come from different cloud services (e.g. some tables from Neutron, others from Nova).
For example, if we have the following table schemas from Nova, Neutron, and ActiveDirectory, we could write a policy that says every network connected to a VM must either be public or owned by someone in the same group as the VM owner.:
error(vm, network) :- nova:virtual_machine(vm) nova:network(vm, network) nova:owner(vm, vm_owner) neutron:owner(network, network_owner) not neutron:public_network(network) not same_group(vm_owner, network_owner) same_group(user1, user2) :- ad:group(user1, group) ad:group(user2, group)
And if one of these errors occurs, the right solution is to disconnect the offending network (as opposed to deleting the VM, changing the owner, or any of the other feasible options):
execute[neutron:disconnectNetwork(vm, network)] :- error(vm, network)
The language Congress supports for expressing policy is called Datalog, a declarative language derived from SQL and first-order logic that has been the subject of research and development for decades.
2. Datalog Policy Language¶
As a policy writer, your goal is to define the contents of the error table, and in so doing to describe exactly those conditions that must be true when policy is being obeyed.
As a policy writer, you can also describe which actions Congress should take when policy is being violated by using the execute operator and thinking of the action to be executed as if it were a table itself.
Either when defining policy directly or describing the conditions under which actions should be executed to eliminate policy violations, it is often useful to use higher-level concepts than the cloud services provide natively. Datalog allows us to do this by defining new tables (higher-level concepts) in terms of existing tables (lower-level concepts) by writing rules. For example, OpenStack does not tell us directly which VMs are connected to the internet; rather, it provides a collection of lower-level API calls from which we can derive that information. Using Datalog we can define a table that lists all of the VMs connected to the internet in terms of the tables that Nova/Neutron support directly. As another example, if Keystone stores some collection of user groups and Active Directory stores a collection of user groups, we might want to create a new table that represents all the groups from either Keystone or Active Directory.
Datalog has a collection of core features for manipulating tables, and it has a collection of more advanced features that become important when you go beyond toy examples.
2.1 Core Datalog Features¶
Since Datalog is entirely concerned with tables, it’s not surprising that Datalog allows us to represent concrete tables directly in the language.
Concrete tables. Suppose we want to use Datalog to represent a Neutron table that lists which ports have been assigned which IPs, such as the one shown below.
To represent this table, we write the following Datalog:
neutron:port_ip("66dafde0-a49c-11e3-be40-425861b86ab6", "10.0.0.1") neutron:port_ip("66dafde0-a49c-11e3-be40-425861b86ab6", "10.0.0.2") neutron:port_ip("73e31d4c-e89b-12d3-a456-426655440000", "10.0.0.3")
Each of the Datalog statements above is called a ground atom (or ground fact). A ground atom takes the form <tablename>(arg1, ..., argn), where each argi is either a double-quoted Python string or a Python number.
Basic rules The real power of Datalog is that it allows you to write recipes for constructing new tables out of existing tables, regardless which rows are in those existing tables.
To create a new table out of an existing table, we write Datalog rules. A rule is a simple if-then statement, where the if part is called the head and the then part is called the body. The head is always a single Datalog atom. The body is an AND of several possibly negated Datalog atoms. OR is accomplished by writing multiple rules with the same table in the head.
Suppose we want to create a new table has_ip that is just a list of the Neutron ports that have been assigned at least one IP address. We want our table to work regardless what IDs and IPs appear in the neutron:port_ip table so we use variables in place of strings/numbers. Variables have the same meaning as in algebra: they are placeholders for any value. (Syntactically, a variable is any symbol other than a number or a string.):
has_ip(x) :- neutron:port_ip(x, y)
This rule says that a port x belongs to the has_ip table if there exists some IP y such that row <x,y> belongs to the neutron:port table. Conceptually, this rule says to look at all of the ground atoms for the neutron:port_ip table, and for each one assign x to the port UUID and y to the IP. Then create a row in the has_ip table for x. This rule when applied to the neutron:port_ip table shown above would generate the following table:
Notice here that there are only 2 rows in has_ip despite there being 3 rows in neutron:port_ip. That happens because one of the ports in neutron:port_ip has been assigned 2 distinct IPs.
AND operator As a slightly more complex example, we could define a table same_ip that lists all the pairs of ports that are assigned the same IP.:
same_ip(port1, port2) :- neutron:port_ip(port1, ip), neutron:port_ip(port2, ip)
This rule says that the row <port1, port2> must be included in the same_ip table if there exists some ip where both <port1, ip> and <port2, ip> are rows in the neutron:port table (where notice that ip is the same in the two rows). Notice here the variable ip appears in two different places in the body, thereby requiring the value assigned to that variable be the same in both cases. This is called a join in the realm of relational databases and SQL.
NOT operator As another example, suppose we want a list of all the ports that have NOT been assigned any IP address. We can use the not operator to check if a row fails to belong to a table.
no_ip(port) :- neutron:port(port), not has_ip(port)
There are special restrictions that you must be aware of when using not. See the next section for details.
OR operator. Some examples require an OR, which in Datalog means writing multiple rules with the same table in the head. Imagine we have two tables representing group membership information from two different services: Keystone and Active Directory. We can create a new table group that says a person is a member of a group if she is a member of that group either according to Keystone or according to Active Directory. In Datalog we create this table by writing two rules.:
group(user, grp) :- ad:group(user, grp) group(user, grp) :- keystone:group(user, grp)
These rules happen to have only one atom in each of their bodies, but there is no requirement for that.
2.2 Extended Datalog Features¶
In addition writing basic rules with and/or/not, the version of Datalog used by Congress includes the features described in this section.
Builtins. Often we want to write rules that are conditioned on things that are difficult or impossible to define within Datalog. For example, we might want to create a table that lists all of the virtual machines that have at least 100 GB of memory. To write that rule, we would need a way to check if the memory of a given machine is greater-than 100 or not. Basic arithmetic, string manipulation, etc. are operations that are built into Datalog, but they look as though they are just ordinary tables. Below the gt is a builtin table implementing greater-than:
plenty_of_memory(vm) :- nova:virtual_machine.memory(vm, mem), gt(mem, 100)
In a later section we include the list of available builtins.
Column references. Some tables have 5+ columns, and when tables have that many columns writing rules can be awkward. Typically when we write a rule, we only want 1 or 2 columns, but if there are 10 columns, then we end up needing to invent variable names to fill all the unneeded columns.
For example, Neutron’s ports table has 10 columns. If you want to create a table that includes just the port IDs (as we used above), you would write the following rule:
port(id) :- neutron:ports(id, tenant_id, name, network_id, mac_address, admin_state_up, status, device_owner, fixed_ips, security_groups)
To simplify such rules, we can write rules that reference only those columns that we care about by using the column’s name. Since the name of the first column of the neutron:ports table is “ID”, we can write the rule above as follows:
port(x) :- neutron:ports(id=x)
You can only use these column references for tables provided by cloud services (since Congress only knows the column names for the cloud service tables). Column references like these are translated automatically to the version without column-references, which is something you may notice from time to time.
Table hierarchy. The tables in the body of rules can either be the original cloud-service tables or tables that are defined by other rules (with some limitations, described in the next section). We can think of a Datalog policy as a hierarchy of tables, where each table is defined in terms of the tables at a lower level in the hierarchy. At the bottom of that hierarchy are the original cloud-service tables representing the state of the cloud.
Order irrelevance. One noteworthy feature of Datalog is that the order in which rules appear is irrelevant. The rows that belong to a table are the minimal ones required by the rules if we were to compute their contents starting with the cloud-service tables (whose contents are given to us) and working our way up the hierarchy of tables. For more details, search the web for the term stratified Datalog semantics.
Execute modal. To write a policy that tells Congress the conditions under which it should execute a certain action, we write rules that utilize the execute modal in the head of the rule.
For example, to dictate that Congress should ask Nova to pause() all of the servers whose state is ACTIVE, we would write the following policy statement:
execute[nova:servers.pause(x)] :- nova:servers(id=x, status="ACTIVE")
We discuss this modal operator in greater detail in Section 3.
Grammar. Here is the grammar for Datalog policies:
<policy> ::= <rule>* <rule> ::= <head> COLONMINUS <literal> (COMMA <literal>)* <head> ::= <atom> <head> ::= EXECUTE[<atom>] <literal> ::= <atom> <literal> ::= NOT <atom> <atom> ::= TABLENAME LPAREN <arg> (COMMA <arg>)* RPAREN <arg> ::= <term> <arg> ::= COLUMNNAME=<term> <term> ::= INTEGER | FLOAT | STRING | VARIABLE
2.3 Datalog Syntax Restrictions¶
There are a number of syntactic restrictions on Datalog that are, for the most part, common sense.
Head Safety: every variable in the head of a rule must appear in the body.
Head Safety is natural because if a variable appears in the head of the rule but not the body, we have not given a prescription for which strings/numbers to use for that variable when adding rows to the table in the head.
Body Safety: every variable occurring in a negated atom or in the input of a built-in table must appear in a non-negated, non-builtin atom in the body.
Body Safety is important for ensuring that the sizes of our tables are always finite. There are always infinitely many rows that DO NOT belong to a table, and there are often infinitely many rows that DO belong to a builtin (like equal). Body safety ensures that the number of rows belonging to the table in the head is always finite.
No recursion: You are not allowed to define a table in terms of itself.
A classic example starts with a table that tells us which network nodes are directly adjacent to which other nodes (by a single network hop). Then you want to write a policy about which nodes are connected to which other nodes (by any number of hops). Expressing such a policy requires recursion, which is not allowed.
Modal safety: The execute modal may only appear in the heads of rules.
The Datalog language is we have is called a condition-action language, meaning that action-execution depends on conditions on the state of the cloud. But it is not an event-condition-action language, which would enable action-execution to depend on the conditions of the cloud plus the action that was just executed. An event-condition-action language would allow the execute modal to appear in the body of rules.
Schema consistency: Every time a rule references one of the cloud service tables, the rule must use the same (number of) columns that the cloud service provides for that table.
This restriction catches mistakes in rules that use the wrong number of columns or the wrong column names.
2.4 Datalog builtins¶
Here is a list of the currently supported builtins. A builtin that has N inputs means that the leftmost N columns are the inputs, and the remaining columns (if any) are the outputs. If a builtin has no outputs, , starting with arithmetic.
|lt(x, y)||2||True if x < y|
|lteq(x, y)||2||True if x <= y|
|gt(x, y)||2||True if x > y|
|gteq(x, y)||2||True if x >= y|
|max(x, y, z)||2||z = max(x, y)|
|plus(x, y, z)||2||z = x + y|
|minus(x, y, z)||2||z = x - y|
|mul(x, y, z)||2||z = x * y|
|div(x, y, z)||2||z = x / y|
|float(x, y)||1||y = float(x)|
|int(x, y)||1||y = int(x)|
Next are the string builtins.
|concat(x, y, z)||2||z = concatenate(x, y)|
|len(x, y)||1||y = number of characters in x|
Last are the builtins for manipulating dates and times. These builtins are based on the Python DateTime object.
|now(x)||0||The current date-time|
|unpack_date(x, year, month, day)||1||Extract year/month/day|
|unpack_time(x, hours, minutes, secs)||1||Extract hours/minutes/seconds|
|unpack_datetime(x, y, m, d, h, i, s)||1||Extract date and time|
|pack_time(hours, minutes, seconds, x)||3||Create date-time with date|
|pack_date(year, month, day, x)||3||Create date-time with time|
|pack_datetime(y, m, d, h, i, s, x)||6||Create date-time with date/time|
|extract_date(x, date)||1||Extract date obj from date-time|
|extract_time(x, time)||1||Extract time obj from date-time|
|datetime_to_seconds(x, secs)||1||secs from 1900 to date-time x|
|datetime_plus(x, y, z)||2||z = x + y|
|datetime_minus(x, y, z)||2||z = x - y|
|datetime_lt(x, y)||2||True if x is before y|
|datetime_lteq(x, y)||2||True if x is no later than y|
|datetime_gt(x, y)||2||True if x is later than y|
|datetime_gteq(x, y)||2||True if x is no earlier than y|
|datetime_equal(x, y)||2||True if x == y|
3. Multiple Policies¶
One of the goals of Congress is for several different people in an organization to collaboratively define a single, overarching policy that governs a cloud. The example, the compute admin might some tables that are good building blocks for writing policy about compute. Similarly the network and storage admins might create tables that help define policy about networking and storage, respectively. Using those building blocks, the cloud administrator might then write policy about compute, storage, and networking.
To make it easier for several people to collaborate (or for a single person to write more modular policies) Congress allows you organize your Datalog statements using policy modules. Each policy module is simply a collection of Datalog statements. You create and delete policy modules using the API, and the you insert/delete Datalog statements into a particular policy module also using the API.
The rules you insert into one policy module can reference tables defined in other policy modules. To do that, you prefix the name of the table with the name of the policy and separate the policy module and table name with a colon.
For example, if the policy module compute has a table that lists all the servers that have not been properly secured insecure(server) and the policy module network has a table of all devices connected to the internet connected_to_internet, then as a cloud administrator, you might write a policy that says there is an error whenever a server is insecure and connected to the internet.
error(x) :- compute:insecure(x), network:connected_to_internet(x)
Notice that this is exactly the same syntax you use to reference tables exported directly by cloud services:
has_ip(x) :- neutron:port_ip(x, y)
In fact, the tables exported by cloud services are stored in a policy module with the same name as the service.
While the term policy module is accurate, we usually abbreviate it to policy, and say that Congress supports multiple policies. Note, however, that supporting multiple policies is not the same thing as supporting multi-tenancy. Currently, all of the policies are visible to everyone using the system, and everyone using the system has the same view of the tables the cloud services export. For true multi-tenancy, you would expect different tenants to have different sets of policies and potentially a different view of the data exported by cloud services.
See section API for details about creating, deleting, and populating policies.
3.1 Syntactic Restrictions for Multiple Policies¶
There are a couple of additional syntactic restrictions imposed when using multiple policies.
No recursion across policies. Just as there is no recursion permitted within a single policy, there is no recursion permitted across policies.
For example, the following is prohibited:
# Not permitted because of recursion Module compute: p(x) :- storage:q(x) Module storage: q(x) :- compute:p(x)
No policy name may be referenced in the head of a rule. A rule may not mention any policy in the head (unless the head uses the modal execute).
This restriction prohibits one policy from changing the tables defined within another policy. The following example is prohibited (in all policy modules, including ‘compute’):
# Not permitted because 'compute' is in the head compute:p(x) :- q(x)
The following rule is permitted, because it utilizes execute in the head of the rule:
# Permitted because of execute execute[nova:pause(x)] :- nova:servers(id=x, status="ACTIVE")
Congress will stop you from inserting rules that violate these restrictions.